The citation within the text of your work is a brief acknowledgement to a source you

have used for any of the reasons listed above.

If you are using a direct quotation or are referring to a specific idea or assertion by an

author, you need to let your reader know where you found the information by giving

the author/creator’s surname, the year and the page number, e.g. (Surname, Year,

Page). The page number is important, as one of the prime functions of referencing is

to enable your reader to quickly locate the information you have used and to verify

the conclusions you have drawn. By using the page number, your reader can do this

without having to read the entire work (book, journal article etc.,) to which you are

referring, which could be hundreds of pages long!

If you are not referring to a specific idea or assertion, but are referring to a work by

an author in its entirety or to a more general argument you only need to include the

author/creator’s surname and the year, e.g. (Surname, Year).

If you have named the author in the flow of your text, you only need to provide the

year and page number (if applicable), e.g. (Year, Page).