Regulatory agencies for global sport can be categorized according to their principal purpose, with authority over (1) athletes (and coaches/officials), (2) sports, (3) competition, or (4) a specialist function for international sport. Examples of agencies with a specialist function in global sport are the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) and the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS). WADA is a global sport organization that depends on governments for financial support and leadership, although it is still classified as a non-profit, non-governmental organization.

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In 2019, WADA further banned Russia from the 2020 Tokyo Olympics (to be held in 2021) and 2022 FIFA World Cup due to statewide doping violations. Russia will still be able to host Euro 2020 matches, and play in the competition, because WADA’s ruling applies only to international events, not continental ones. Russia was also banned from the 2018 Pyeongchang Olympics in South Korea, yet 168 athletes dressed in Russian red marched during the opening ceremony, acknowledged the crowd’s applause at the opening ceremony and heard the announcer cry: “Ladies and gentlemen, the Olympic Athletes from Russia!” It has been postulated that WADA is a service and education provider, and not a regulator due to its inability to mandate compliance by all signatories.

Does the World Anti-Doping Agency have appropriate sanctioning power? Why or why not?