Characteristics of subordinates that may substitute for leadership include high ability, experience, need for independence, professional orientation, and indifference toward organizational rewards. If the staff at your organization are highly capable in their jobs, prefer to work without a lot of direction, and get most of their satisfaction from serving their customers, then they will probably continue to perform at a high level whether or not they have a highly capable leader.

1. The Nature of Leadership

Apply your knowledge of leadership to answer the following question.

When thinking of leadership as a property, how can we define leadership?

Leadership is the same as management.

Leadership is the use of coercive influence to motivate behavior.

Leadership is the use of noncoercive influence to motivate behavior.

Leadership is the set of characteristics attributed to individuals who are perceived to be leaders.