As more and more electric vehicles are sold in the world, we get a benefit of reducing omissions caused by gas and diesel automobiles and trucks, however another environmental issue arises: what to do with the batteries that power the vehicles after the vehicle is disposed. More than 1 million electric cars were sold in 2017 and that alone will create 250,000 ton of discarded batteries once the cars have been used. Typically, these are lithium-ion batteries and should not just be put into a landfill because of the toxic effects of the lithium. There are recycling techniques (smelting, direct recovery, and intermediate processes) but so far none are really cost effective. Who should pay for the cost of repurposing the batteries? The car makers? Car owners? Governments? What are the pros and cons of who should pay?
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