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What did Aguinaldo mean by asserting that the United States had “set up a

double standard of government”? What did he see as America’s goal in the


. How did American perceptions of Filipinos as “ignorant savages” infl uence

U.S. policy? How did those perceptions infl uence American “imperialism,”

according to Aguinaldo?


 How did American policy in the Philippines compare to Spanish rule, accord

ing to Aguinaldo?

 What did he mean by the “unique spectacle” of “Filipinos

fi ghting for liberty, [and] the American people fi ghting them to give them lib

erty”? Why did the United States ally with Aguinaldo, then turn against him?



 Why did Americans ask Filipinos to “Lay down your arms”? 

What was the

signifi cance of “sovereignty”?