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erty and want”? What did he mean by “the mother’s crime”?

. Why did Riis believe “waifs” were abandoned? What did his account suggest  

about the families of the waifs? About the city’s government and social welfare  



. What were “pay babies”? What did they suggest about poor mothers?


 What was “baby-farming”? Why did Riis consider it “fi endish”? What were  

poor families trying to accomplish by baby-farming?


. How did better-off New Yorkers respond to the problems of waifs and their  


 Why did they respond as they did? Why did Riis consider these  

responses “a silver lining, bright with promise”?