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Explain concept formation. Drawing from the Sartori article, describe comment problems associated with conceptualization. 

• Complete the following sentence: Measurement​‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‌‌‌‍‍​nt serves to bridge ______ with ______. • What is an observable implication?

 Explain exactly how observable implications permit “measurement” to perform its crucial “bridging” function. • What is measurement validity?

 How do we establish measurement validity? •

 What is a dependent variable? What is it comprised of?