1. In early-modern Europe, which social groups made up the First, Second and Third Estates respectively?


  1. What was the institution called via which artisans and craftsmen organized themselves? Based on this institution, what three steps constituted a member’s professional development?


  1. In what year did the Crusaders take Jerusalem? Which hero of the Muslim world took it back?


  1. What battle saw William of Normandy take control of England? What year did it take place?


  1. Which three artistic giants dominated the “High Renaissance”? What were the two chief artistic concerns of Italian Renaissance art?


  1. Who initiated the first seafaring expedition to circumnavigate the globe? Bonus if you can tell me which Portuguese explorer was the first to make it to India by sailing around the Cape of Good Hope.


  1. Who is generally credited with initiating the Protestant Reformation? What specific development brought him into conflict with the Papacy, and in what year did this happen? What is the name of the document he produced in connection with this?


  1. What is the name of the Holy Roman Emperor who right from the start opposed the Protestant Reformation? To which dynasty did he belong?
    Which individual initiated the Protestant Reformation in Switzerland? In what city was he based? Over what issue in particular did he find himself in disagreement with the individual in question 7?


  1. Which individual is most credited with initiating the Protestant Reformation in England? Why did he do this? Bonus if you can tell me the name of the Protestant church in England.


  1. Which second-generation Protestant Reformer was based in Geneva? What theological doctrine is he most strongly identified with?


  1. Which religious order is most strongly associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and who was its founder? How would you describe its basic philosophy?


  1. What were Calvinists known as in France? Which individual eventually emerged from the French Wars of Religion as sole heir to the throne?


  1. What was the name of the treaty that marked the end of the Thirty Years War? Which earlier treaty (from 1555) did it reconfirm? Bonus if you can tell the year that the Thirty Years War ended.


  1. What is the name of the Treaty dividing the New World between Spain and Portugal? What modern-day nation-state corresponds to the Portuguese portion



  1.  Identify one Spanish conquistador. Which Native American empire did he conquer?


  1.  Which Dominican friar was famously critical of the treatment of Native Americans? What term refers to the (possibly exaggerated) perception that the Spanish were exceptionally cruel and inhumane in this respect? 


  1. Which term refers to Spaniards’ right to the labor of a specified number of Native Americans for a specified length of time? Which term refers to the requirement that male Native Americans devote annually a set number of days of labor to Spanish economic enterprises?


  1. Which institution was responsible for governing the Spanish Empire on behalf of the Spanish crown? Which institution, based in Seville, regulated all Spanish trade with the New World?


  1. Which term refers to the impact Old World (Europe)-New World (the Americas) contact had on both via the introduction of new foods, animals and diseases?


Bonus Questions (5 points each)


  1. Tell me anything you can about the influence of Islamic civilization on the Renaissance.


  1. Tell me what you can about the causes of the Protestant Reformation
    Tell me anything you can about the relationship between Protestantism and capitalism (as per Max Weber).


  1. Tell me what you can about slavery in the New World, particularly with regard to Africans?