Jack missed an important team meeting. If you blame Jack, you’ll need to punish him for missing the meeting. But if he missed the meeting because of circumstances beyond his control, you won’t. In which situation should you attribute the cause to circumstances beyond Jack’s control?

Jack sometimes misses meetings, but only when the meetings are optional. He would usually attend required meetings. The entire team respects the need to be at important meetings.

Several team members were late to the meeting because of highway construction. Jack is usually on time to meetings and to work in general.

Jack has a tendency to miss meetings on Fridays. Other team members joke that he’s usually on the golf course on these days.