Assume a 100 Mbps transmission that uses a Non-return to Zero (NRZ) bipolar signaling technique, with a +5 voltage indicating a 1, and a -5 voltage indicating a zero.  Assume that during transmission for 1/100th of a second that the voltage drops to a 3-volt signal.  What is the maximum number of bits that are affected during transmission due to this voltage drop?   Explain how you determined the answer by showing the steps and details involved in your calculations.  


What is the transmission rate of information bits (TRIB) if you use 8-bit ASCII, 1,492-characters in each frame, with 20 overhead characters per frame?  Assume a 155Mbps transmission speed, an error rate of 1%, and a 40-millisecond turnaround time? Use the formula for TRIB provided in the lecture content (Data Link Layer – Part 3 slide deck).  Ensure that your answer identifies the value and the units associated with each variable in the formula.  Show the steps and details of your calculations.  Express your final answer in bits per second and with two decimal places.  (6 points)


 Assume 8-bits per character.  Assume that a protocol carries 1492 bytes per frame.  Each frame includes both information and overhead bits such as source and destination MAC addresses, CRC-32 etc.  Assume a total of 448 overhead bits.  What is the transmission efficiency of this protocol?  Explain how you determined this answer by showing the steps and details involved in your calculations.                                                                                                          (4 points)

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