1. Draw your group’s banding patterns obtained following gel electrophoresis in the image below.


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Review questions:


  1. Why did we include primers to amplify a cpDNA gene in this experiment?





  1. Which foods tested showed signs of GMOs?



  1. Why were 2% gels used in the GMO experiment?




How were you able to determine that a food sample contained GMOs?




  1. Suppose you tested a food item that you knew was genetically modified, but the results of this experiment were negative. How might you explain the results?





  1. Plant cells have how many genomes? What are they? Which genomes were examined in this study?



  1. Why did your instructor recommend that the non-GMO food control sample be prepared using the mortar and pestle prior to the test food sample?




  1. What reagents are used in a typical PCR? What is the function of each component?





Explain why DNA ladders are usually included during gel electrophoresis.




  1. One aspect of PCR that can be modified is the annealing temperature. In general, higher annealing temperatures show more specificity towards a single template, whereas lower annealing temperatures show less specificity and may bind to multiple regions throughout the genome. Discuss how using an annealing temperature that is too high or too low might influence the results of a PCR assay (and gel electrophoresis results) such as the one used in this study.


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