. During the nineteenthcentury, Congress was Americas dominant institution of government, and

members ofCongress sometimes treated the president with disdain. Explain how presidentshave

changed thisreality over the last 120 years by adopting an administrative strategy.Specifically, discuss

how presidentshave (1) enhanced the reach and power of the Executive Office of the President(EOP);

(2) increasedWhite House control over the federal bureaucracy; and (3) expanded the role of

instruments ofdirect presidential governance



4.Describe thechallenge of bureaucratic accountability. What is oversight and how does congressional

action shapebureaucratic responsibility? What are some possible ways in which the presidentcan gain

more control ofthe bureaucracy?



5. Explain thebasic structure and jurisdiction of the federal judicial system. Describe thethree different

levels offederal courts. How are the lower courts created and how is their jurisdictiondefined? What

was the originaljurisdiction of the Supreme Court.