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According to Sumner, what did one class owe to another?

 What defi ned classes?

. What, according to Sumner, were the advantages of a “social structure . . . based  

on contract”? What was the relationship between contracts and freedom?


“Rights do not pertain to results, but only to chances,” Sumner declared. Why  

was that distinction important to him? Why did increasing chances create  

greater inequality? Was great inequality therefore a sign of the health and  

strength of American society? Why or why not?