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. What are the 4 primary factors that influence metabolism? updated 2023


Analyzing Food Fads: While this assignment may seem like a duplicate of last week, this time, please: a.

Find an ad that promotes a product which claims to boost metabolism. b. Take a picture of the ad and attach it to your assignment. c. Analyze the ad:

1. How truthful is the ad?

2. What are the 4 primary (most important) factors that influence metabolism?

List these 4 factors. d. Based on these 4 factors, can the product actually raise metabolism? (See p. 269 – 274, 3rd ed. or p. 234 – 238, 4th ed.) e. What is the appeal of the ad?

f. List at least 5 general signs of food faddism. (p. 301, 3rd ed.; p. 265, 4th ed.) Assignment 5.

4 – Digestion & Absorption: a

. Name the digestive organs, accessory organs, and digestive secretions. Include the functions of each organ and enzymes secreted at each site of digestion/absorption.

b. Identify sites of absorption and digestive action (chemical/mechanical) by tracing the breakdown of nutrients, beginning with the mouth and moving through the digestive tract.

c. List the end products of digestion for carbohydrates, fats, protein.



the process by which the body converts food into energy, is influenced by several factors. Four primary factors play a significant role in determining an individual’s metabolic rate:

  1. Basal metabolic rate (BMR): BMR refers to the energy expended by the body at rest to maintain essential functions such as breathing, circulation, and cell production. Factors that influence BMR include age, gender, body composition (muscle mass versus fat mass), and genetics. Generally, men tend to have a higher BMR than women, and muscle mass is more metabolically active than fat.
  2. Physical activity: Physical activity, including exercise and daily movements, contributes to the total energy expenditure. Engaging in regular physical activity can increase metabolism by stimulating muscle growth, which in turn increases energy expenditure even at rest. The type, intensity, and duration of physical activity influence its impact on metabolism.
  3. Diet and nutrition: The food we consume provides the fuel for our metabolism. The thermic effect of food (TEF) refers to the energy expended during digestion, absorption, and storage of nutrients. Different macronutrients have varying TEF, with protein requiring more energy to process compared to carbohydrates and fats. Balanced nutrition, including adequate protein, carbohydrates, and healthy fats, is crucial for optimal metabolic function.
  4. Hormonal factors: Hormones play a vital role in regulating metabolism. Thyroid hormones, primarily thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), are produced by the thyroid gland and regulate metabolic rate. Insulin, secreted by the pancreas, regulates glucose metabolism and influences energy storage. Other hormones, such as cortisol and growth hormone, also impact metabolism.


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